Yes and No in Welsh

Welsh doesn’t have a single word to use every time for yes and no questions. The word used depends on the form of the question. You must generally answer using the relevant form of the verb used in the question, or in questions where the verb is not the first element you use either ‘ie’ / ‘nage’. “Ie” is often pronounced “ia” in northern dialects of Welsh.

Cymraeg English
Ie / Ia Yes
Na No
Oes There is/are
Nac oes There is not
Ydy It is
Nac ydy It isn’t
Ydw I am
Nac ydw I’m not

Oes and Nac oes are used to answer questions regarding a quantity or existance of an object (i.e. the 3 sg. present indicative of the existential verb).

Ydy and Nac ydy are the 3 sg. present indicative of the substantive verb ‘to be’ used, e.g., where the sentence involves a predicate.

Ydw and Nac ydw are the 1 sg. present indicative of the substantive verb, used either existentially or in the case of predicates.

Examples

Cwestiwn ac Ateb Question and Answer Literally
Oes ci gennych?
Oes.
Do you have a dog?
Yes.
Is there a dog with you?
There is.
Oes ci gennych?
Nac oes.
Do you have a dog?
No.
Is there a dog with you?
There is not.
Ydy hi’n oer?
Ydy.
Is it cold?
Yes.
Is it (fem.) cold?
It is.
Ydy hi’n oer?
Nac ydy.
Is it cold?
No.
Is it (fem.) cold?
It isn’t.
Ydych chi’n hoffi siocled?
Ydw.
Do you like chocolate?
Yes.
Are you liking chocolate?
I am.
Ydych chi’n hoffi siocled?
Nac ydw.
Do you like chocolate?
No.
Are you liking chocolate?
I’m not.

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